, it was established by Christ during his lifetime, long before Peter is said to have reached Rome. 289 290 In 451 the Council of Chalcedon, in a canon of disputed validity, 291 elevated the see of Constantinople to a position "second in eminence and power to the bishop of Rome". Retrieved "Canon 222 2". Jeg er fornøyd med min favoritt porno nettsted! The resulting persecutions were a defining feature of Christian self-understanding until Christianity was legalised in the 4th century. "BBC Religions: What is the Tridentine Mass?". 309 In the 11th century, the efforts of Hildebrand of Sovana led to the creation of the College of Cardinals to elect new popes, starting with Pope Alexander II in the papal election of 1061. "Corporal and Spiritual Works of Mercy". Accessed 15 November 2014. "Crypto-Protestants and Pseudo-Catholics in the Nineteenth-Century Hispanic Caribbean". As a result of Islamic domination of the Mediterranean, the Frankish state, centred away from that sea, was able to evolve as the dominant power that shaped the Western Europe of the Middle Ages. These are in turn interpreted by the Magisterium (from magister, Latin for "teacher the church's teaching authority, which is exercised by the pope and the College of Bishops in union with the pope, the bishop of Rome.